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Equestrian News - Eventing

British Eventing
High Offley Stud have produced horses for eventing from novice to advanced
Mary King Eventer
Horse profile of leading event rider Mary King, results, information and latest news
Laura Collett in serious condition
Eventing rider Laura Collett, who had a serious fall on Monday is in very serious condition, but not critical. "She is now out of the coma and will be held next twenty-four hours in a
British team announced for eventing European championship
The British Equestrian Federation has its team for the eventing European championship on the August 28 to September 1st place in Malmö, Sweden. The British team consists of Tina Cook o
Top level success for EHOA owners, riders and trainers
Congratulations to all our EHOA members that have enjoyed prize giving over the last few weeks. Too many to list individually, however we are thrilled to name but a few ;

Luhmuhl

Eventer - Pippa Funnell William Fox Pitt - British Eventer Mary King Eventer Karin Donckers - Belgium Event Rider Andrew Nicholson - Eventer
American Eventer - Phillip Dutton Buck Davidson USA Eventer Event Rider - Clayton Fredericks Bettina Hoy - German Eventer Austin O’ Connor - International Eventer
Italian Eventer - Vittoria Panizzon Caroline Powell - Eventer Rodolphe Scherer - French Eventer Chinese Eventer - Alex Hua Tian British Eventer - Oliver Townend
French Eventer - Nicolas Touzaint Lucy Wiegersma Eventer Ruth Edge - British Eventer Stuart Tinney - International Eventer Polly Stockton - Eventer

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Blood lines including Ramiro Z, Carthago Z, Landgraf I, Legaat, Its The Business, Arturo 8, Purioso, Grand Veneur and many others, High Offley Stud is home to some excellent young horses for sale with blood lines to ensure they become highly succesfull performance horse for showjumping, dressage and....
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Equestrian News - Eventing

Elite SHB (GB) Stallion Jaguar Mail to stand in the UK
The well-known three-quarter bred Selle Francais (Hand in Glove XX-Laudanum XX-Almé) owned and bred by Bernard Le Courtois of Haras de Brullemail in Normandy, will be standing at Twemlo
Tina Cook, Tom McEwen, Nicky Roncoroni, Gemma Tattersall and Izzy Taylor bound for Aachen for Nations Cup
The updated list of five British riders that will be contesting the CICO3* Nations Cup competition in Aachen, Germany (27-29 June 2013) is as follows, further to two rider substitutions
Boost for The Land Rover Burghley Horse Trials prize pot
For the second year running the prize fund of The Land Rover Burghley Horse Trials (5-8 September) has been increased with a significant rise in prize money for those who finish in the
Andrew Nicholson cruises to victory at Luhmühlen
There were emotional scenes when Andrew Nicholson and Mr Cruise Control triumphed at Luhmühlen, presented by DHL Paket, the penultimate leg of the HSBC FEI Classics™.

It was the
William Fox-Pitt takes seventh Bramham title
The nail-biting show jumping phase on the final day of the Equi-Trek Bramham International Horse Trials, Sunday 9 June provided a fitting finale to two amazing competitions on Bramham’s
William Coleman and Phillip Dutton Take Top Honors at the Volvo CCI3* Bromont Three-Day Event
William Coleman III and Phillip Dutton both maintained their leads in the final show jumping phase to win the CCI3* and CIC3* divisions respectively at the 2013 Volvo CCI3* Bromont Thre
FEI news: international movement of high-level sport horses
The FEI has welcomed two major advances in its ongoing global campaign to improve the international movement of sport horses.

The European Commission and Chinese authorities join
New lottery-style sponsorship draw launched for Firle Place International Horse Trials
The title sponsor of this year's Firle Place International Horse Trials could pay as little as £100 to have the two-day event named after their company.

A new lottery-style spons
Britain`s Eventing Nations Cup team of Tina Cook, Mary King , Kitty King, Tom McEwen and Izzy Taylor announced for Aachen
The selectors of the British Senior Eventing team have today announced the team of five riders that will be contesting the CICO3* Nations Cup competition in Aachen, Germany (27-29 June
Legendary Miners Frolic heads to Nunney with Tina Cook
Eventing fans are in for a treat at Nunney International Horse Trials next weekend where Tina Cook will ride her London 2012 team silver medalist Miners Frolic in the open intermediate
World`s elite gather for the Battle of Bramham
Britain’s Olympic team silver medal trio William Fox-Pitt, Zara Phillips and local star Nicola Wilson top a star studded entry of over 140 riders from 11 countries across three eventing
Global equestrian talent hunt begins as nominations open for FEI Awards 2013
The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI), the world governing body of equestrian sport, today opens nominations for its annual awards.

For the fifth consecutive year, the FE
European Pony Championships long list names revealed
Last year the Charles Owen British Pony team returned triumphantly from France crowned with team and individual silver medals. The selectors of the British Pony squad have made now mad
Belsay: Inaugural Horse Trials is a Resounding Success
Belsay Castle provided a stunning backdrop to the first ever Belsay Horse Trials last weekend and organisers have been overwhelmed by the positive response from competitors, sponsors,
British domination at Tattersalls
British riders lead the field on Irish across four of the International classes at Tattersalls Horse Trials in Co Meath over the last weekend (30th May - 2nd June 2013).



Eventing Cinema – the YouTube competition from BE and HorseHub
Following a successful launch as a celebration of 2012 as an Olympic year, British Eventing supported by our friends at HorseHub are again offering promising film-makers the chance to e
Applications open soon for England Excel Talent Programme
Applications open soon for the 2013-2015 cycle, of the Sport England funded England Excel Talent Programme, which exists to identify, support and develop both riders and horses who demo
Pony Championship hopefuls head to Brand Hall
Established Pony European Championship riders as well as new-comers to Britain's Charles Owen Pony programme* will head to Brand Hall in Shropshire this weekend to contest the Charles O
Stratford Hills ground and event update
A note from the Organising team: "The ground conditions are good with an excellent grass covering over all areas. This beautiful undulating course in the heart of Constable Country is e
British Eventing - Young Horse Championships rule changes
This is to provide advance notice on the rule changes for the KBIS British Eventing Young Horse Championships.

The full rules for the Championships can be found in Annex 6 page 1


Eventing

Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show jumping. This event has its roots as a comprehensive cavalry test requiring mastery of several types of riding. It has three main formats, the one day event (ODE), two day event and the three day event (3DE), which in reality now runs four days at some competitions. The sport was once referred to as "Militaire", and there is such a format that riders complete all three events in one day, called a "horse trial". Also, a "combined test" is a spin off of eventing which encompasses dressage and show jumping, but leaves out the cross country phase.

Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one day (one day event) or three days (three day event).

The dressage phase (held first) comprises an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena (20x60m for International 3DE but usually 20x40 for ODE). The test is judged by one or more judges who are looking for balance, rhythm and suppleness and most importantly, obedience of the horse and its harmony with the rider. The challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross country phase on time, also has the training to perform in a graceful, relaxed and precise manner.

At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is roughly equivalent to the USDF Third Level, and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, travers, collected, medium and extended gaits, single flying changes, and counter-canter. The tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as piaffe or passage.

Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. Therefore, if one movement is executed terribly, it is still possible for a rider to get a good score if he reorganizes and does well in the following movements. The good marks are added together and any errors of course deducted - to convert this score to penalty points the average marks of all judges is converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body then subtracted from 100.

Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or is eliminated.
If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.
If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination.
Errors on course:
1st Error = minus 2 marks
2nd Error = minus 4 marks
3rd Error = elimination
The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other. This phase consists of approximately 12-20 fences (lower levels), 30-40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of very solidly built natural objects (telephone poles, stone walls, etc.) as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches, drops and banks, and combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would commonly occur in the countryside. Sometimes, particularly at higher levels, fences are designed that wouldn't normally occur in nature. However, these are still just as solid as other jumps. Safety regulations mean that many jumps have a frangible pin system, allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame (optimum time). Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, incurring penalties for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. Penalties are also incurred if the horse refuses to jump a fence or has a run out. Should the horse fall, a mandatory retirement is taken. Should the rider fall off the horse at any point in the competition, he/she is automatically eliminated. The penalties for disobediences on cross country are weighted severely relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage, endurance and athleticism. Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events.

Horse trials, which may be held over one or two days, have only one phase of cross country. If the trial is held over the course of two days, dressage and show jumping are usually held the first day, with cross country on the second.

Recent years has seen the controversy of short and long format three day events. Traditionally, three day events had dressage, endurance and show jumping. Endurance day consisted of 4 Phases, A, B, C and D. Phase A and C were roads and tracks, with A being a medium paced warm up to prepare the horse and rider for Phase B, a steeplechase format at an extremely fast pace over steeplechase-style fences. Phase C was a slow-paced cool down coming off of Phase B, in preparation for the toughest and most demanding phase, D, or Cross Country. Before embarking on Phase D, in the "ten-minute box," horses had to be approved to continue by a vet, who monitored their temperature and heart rate, ensuring that the horse was sound and fit.

Three day events are now offered in traditional format, with endurance day, or short-format, with no Steeplechasing (phase B)or roads and tracks (phases A & C). The 2004 Olympic Summer Games in Athens, Greece chose the short format, due to lack of facilities, time and financing, which sparked a large debate in the eventing community whether to keep Steeplechase or just offer Cross Country. Today, most events are run short-format, except for a few one-star competitions.

Scoring
Refusal, run-out, or circle at an obstacle: 20 penalties
Second refusal, run-out, circle at the same obstacle: 40 penalties
Third refusal, run-out, circle on XC Course: Elimination
(As of Late 2008) Second Fall of rider: Elimination
Fall of horse (shoulder touches the ground): Mandatory Retirement
Exceeding Optimum Time: 0.4 penalties per second
Coming in under Speed Fault Time: 0.4 penalties per second
Exceeding the Time Limit (twice the optimum time): Elimination

Other faults
Competing with improper saddlery: Elimination
Jumping without headgear or a properly fastened harness: Elimination
Error of course not rectified: Elimination
Omission of obstacle: Elimination
Jumping an obstacle in the wrong order: Elimination
Jumping an obstacle in the wrong direction: Elimination
Retaking an obstacle already jumped: Elimination
Dangerous riding, at determination of the Ground Jury: Elimination (usually with a warning before elimination)
Failure to wear medical armband: Elimination (at discretion of Ground Jury)

Types of Obstacles

Combinations: A combination is always considered one obstacle, and the various elements within the combination are lettered "A", "B", "C" and so on. In Cross-country, the rider need only retake the element they refused rather than the whole complex. So a refusal at element B does not require them to jump A again. However, they have the option of retaking the previous elements if they wish. For example, in a bounce type obstacle it may be physically impossible to approach B without first clearing A. Yet for some in and outs, you can go to B and not have to rejump A.

Many cross-country obstacles have several possible routes to take (for example, at obstacle 5 there may be two A, two B, and two C elements), with one route usually being faster but requiring a more skillful ride or more physical effort from the horse. A rider may take any of the possible routes as long as they pass over each letter once. Additionally, after a refusal, they may jump a different obstacle in its place, as long as it is the same letter. For example, if a refusal occurs at B, the rider may jump an alternative obstacle that is marked B to help avoid a second refusal, but may not jump a second A element in place of the B element.

A refusal at A is a first refusal, and would receive 20 penalties. Whether the rider retakes A or not, a subsequent refusal at B is a second refusal and so on. Three refusals at any one obstacle results in elimination, as does 4 refusals on the entire course.

Veterinary inspection, or "Trot Up"/ "Horse Inspection"

Before the beginning of a three day event, and also before the last phase, horses are inspected by a vet to ensure that they are fit to compete further. It is usually a very formal affair, with well-groomed and braided horses, and nicely dressed riders. It is also a very nerve-racking time, as the "pass" or "fail" determines whether the horse may continue with the competition. A vet can request that a horse is sent to the holding box, when it will then be re-assesed before being allowed to continue.

Show Jumping
In lower levels of competition the horse's movement may be analysed as they finish the cross-country, where they will be asked to trot briefly after crossing the finishing line to satisfy the vet of their soundness.

Show jumping tests the technical jumping skills of the horse and rider, including suppleness, obedience, fitness and athleticism. In this phase, 12-20 fences are set up in a ring. These fences are typically brightly colored and consist of elements that can be knocked down, unlike cross country obstacles. This phase is also timed, with penalties being given for every second over the required time. In addition to normal jumping skills, eventing show jumping tests the fitness and stamina of the horse and rider, generally being held after the cross-country phase in higher level and international events.

Scoring
Knocking down an obstacle: 4 penalties
First Disobedience (refusal, run-out, circle, moving backwards): 4 penalties
Second Disobedience in the whole round: Elimination (New Rule for 2007)
First Fall of rider: Elimination
Fall of horse: Compulsory Retirement
Exceeding the time allowed: 1 penalty per second
Jumping an obstacle in the wrong order: Elimination
Error of course not rectified: Elimination
An obstacle is defined as having been knocked down if any part of it is lowered. It is therefore possible to knock out a pole below the top pole and receive no penalties.

Eventing competition that resembles the current three-day were first held in 1902, at the Championnat du Cheval d'Armes in France, but were not introduced into the Olympic Games until 1912. Dressage originally demonstrated the horse's ability to perform on the parade ground, where elegance and obedience were key. Cross-country began as a test of stamina, courage, and bravery over difficult terrain, important for a charger on long marches or if the horse was asked to carry a dispatch across country. The stadium jumping phase sought to prove the horse's continuing soundness and fitness after the difficult cross-country day.

The Olympic eventing competition was originally open only to male military officers in active duty, mounted only on military charges. In 1924, the event was open to male civilians, although non-commissioned Army officers could not participate in the Olympics until 1956. Women were first allowed to take part in 1964; equestrian sports are one of the few Olympic sports in which men and women compete against one another.

Format
The original format, used in the 1912 Olympics, was spread over several days:

Day 1: Endurance Test - 55 km (33 miles) of roads and tracks (with a time allowed of 4 hours, giving a speed of approx. 230 meters per minute) immediately followed by 5 km of a flagged cross-country course at a speed of 333 meters per minute. Time penalties were given for exceeding the time allowed, but no bonus points were given for being fast.
Day 2: Rest Day
Day 3: Steeplechase test of 3.5 km with 10 plain obstacles, at a speed of 600 mpm, with time penalties but no time bonus points
Day 4: Jumping Test ("Prize Jumping"), which was considered easy by most of the spectators
Day 5: Dressage Test ("Prize Riding")
The Paris Games in 1924 introduced a format very similar to the one of today: with Day 1 Dressage, Day 2 the Endurance Test, and Day 3 the Jumping Test. The Endurance Test has changed the most since that time. Originally, bonus points could be earned for a fast ride cross-country (less than the optimum time). This helped competitors make up for a poor dressage ride, with a clean, fast cross-country ride. This system, however, was dropped in 1971. The format for the endurance test occurred as below:

Phase A: Short roads and tracks (with five penalties per 5 seconds over time)
Phase B: Steeplechase, decreased in speed from 600 mpm to 550 mpm (with 10 penalties added per 5 seconds over the time, 3 bonus points per 5 seconds under time)
Phase C: Long roads and tracks (with 5 penalties per 5 seconds over time) Compulsory Halt (now the 10-minute halt)
Phase D: Cross-country (with 10 penalties added per 5 seconds over the time, 3 bonus points per 10 seconds under time)
Phase E: 1¼ mile run on the flat (with 5 penalties per 5 seconds over time). (Note: Phase E was abolished in 1967.)

In 1963, the 10-minute halt was introduced, to occur after the completion of phases A, B, and C. It took place in a marked out area (the 10-minute box), where the horse was checked by two judges and one veterinary official who would make sure the horse was fit to continue onto phase D. If the horse was unfit, the panel would pull it from the competition.

The format of the sport underwent major changes in 2004 and 2005, with the creation of the "short" or "modified format," which excluded phases A, B, and C from endurance day. The primary reason for excluding these phases was that the Olympic Committee was considering dropping the sport of eventing from the Olympics because of the cost and large area required for the speed and endurance phase with a steeplechase course and several miles of roads-and-tracks. To prevent the elimination of the sport from the Olympics program, the "short format" was developed by the FEI. The last Olympic Games that included the long, or "classic", three-day format was the 2000 Summer Games in Sydney, while Rolex Kentucky, the Badminton Horse Trials, and Burghley Horse Trials ran their last long format three-day in 2005. The short format is now the standard for international competition, such as the Olympics and World Equestrian Games.

The change in format has brought about controversy. Many[who?] want the continuation of the classic format, believing it is the "true test of horse and rider". Others believe the classic format is superior because it teaches horsemanship, due to the extra preparation needed to condition the horse and the care required after the several miles of endurance day. However, some upper-level riders claim to prefer the short format, as they believe it saves wear-and-tear on their horses and allows the horse not only to compete in more three-day events each season, but decreases the chance of injury to the horse. This claim has not held true in several recent studies that compared injuries sustained in classic and in short format competitions over equivalent courses. Further, some research indicates that horses are more stressed by the short format than by the careful warmup inherent in the classic format. Regardless, many upper-level riders prepare their horses for the short format using the same conditioning and training as for the long format. The short format has also been widely urged by breeders of heavier, warmblood type horses. The long format has remained very, very popular at the Preliminary, or one star, level in the United States, and with riders who feel it maximizes horsemanship.

Penalty point system
In 1971, the penalty point system was first introduced into eventing. This system converts the dressage score and all jump penalties on cross-country and show jumping into penalty points, with the horse and rider with the fewest number of points winning the event. Different weight is given for each phase, with the cross-country — the heart of eventing — being the most important, followed by the dressage, and then the show jumping. The intended ratio of cross-country:dressage:show jumping is theoretically 12:3:1. Therefore, an error in cross-country counts heavily. This prevents horses that are simply good in dressage (for example) from winning the event with a poor cross-country test.

In 1971, the following penalty system was instituted:

Phase A and C: 1 penalty per second over the optimum time
Phase B: 0.8 penalties per second over
Phase D: 0.4 penalties per second over

In 1977, the dressage scoring was changed, with each movement marked out of ten rather than out of six. This increased the maximum number of dressage marks from 144 to 240. This number later increased to 250 marks in 1998, after additional movements were added. To keep the correct weight, a formula is used to convert good marks in dressage to penalty points. First, the marks of the judges (if there is more than one) are averaged. Then the raw mark is subtracted from the maximum points possible. This number is then multiplied by 0.6 to calculate the final penalty score.

Show jumping rules were also changed in 1977, with a knock-down or a foot in the water awarded only 5 penalties rather than ten. This prevented the show jumping phase from carrying too much weight, again, to keep the ratio between the phases correct.

Non-Olympic competition
In its early days, the sport was most popular in Britain, and the British gave the competition a new name, the "Three-Day Event," due to the three day time span of the competition. In America, the sport was also called "combined training," due to the three different disciplines and types of training methods needed for the horse. In the United Kingdom, "combined training" competition includes only the dressage and show jumping phases.

The first annual, Olympic-level event developed was the Badminton Horse Trials, held each year in England. First held in 1949, the Badminton event was created after a poor performance by the British Eventing Team at the 1948 Olympic Games, with the purpose of being a high-class preparation event, and as extra exposure for the military horses, who very rarely had the chance to compete. Initially, only British riders were allowed to compete (although women were allowed, despite being banned from riding in the Olympics), but the competition is now an international open. That is, open to all riders from around the world who have qualified for this level of competition. To this day, Badminton is the most prestigious events to win in the world. Currently, the Olympic event is consider a CCI***, a rank lower than Badminton which is a CCI****.

The second three-day competition to be held at Olympic level each year was the Burghley Horse Trials, first held in 1961. Burghley is the longest running international event.

The first CCI held outside of Britain on an annual basis was the Rolex Kentucky Three Day, held each year in Lexington since 1978.

Importance of dressage training
In the early years, the dressage phase was fairly inconsequential in determining the final standings. It was quite possible for a horse to have a terrible dressage test, then run a clean cross-country and show jumping, and still finish near the top of the standings. Since then, correct dressage training has become increasingly important should a horse and rider wish to be placed (complete all sections, and finish in the top 12). This can be traced back to Sheila Willcox who took a particular interest in dressage, becoming abundantly clear when she won Badminton three years running in the 1950s. She had a strong influence on Mary King and Lucinda Green amongst others.

After the 2000 Olympic Games, the FEI hired British eventer and dressage rider, Christopher Bartle to write new dressage tests for the upper level events, which would include a greater deal of collection. This has since raised the standard even further in the dressage phase.

Additionally, the cross-country phase has become more technical, asking the horse to be adjustable and supple through combinations. A horse can no longer just be brave and athletic, but must have a good deal of dressage training should his rider wish to successfully negotiate odd distances or bending lines at a gallop. Also, in the show jumping, a horse is asked to move with impulsion and engagement; this makes the jump more fluent, the horse to bascule more correctly and is less jarring for both horse and rider.

Safety
Between 1997 and December 2008, at least 37 eventing riders died as a result of injuries incurred while competing in the cross-country phase of eventing at national or international level or at Pony Club, and of these, 18 riders died in the period 2006-2008. These 37 fatal falls have been at all levels of the sport, from domestic one-day events up to regional championships level, and they have occurred in most of the recognised eventing countries around the world, with concentrations in the United Kingdom (14) and the United States (8). At least 25 of these 37 deaths have resulted from a somersaulting (rotational) fall of the horse, with 11 of the 16 deaths in 2007 and 2008 being reported as having resulted from a rotational horse fall.

Information about horse fatalities is difficult to locate, but at least 19 eventing horses, many of them top-level performers, died in 2007 & 2008, most of them in the US.

Over time, course design has become increasingly more focused on the safety of the horse and rider. Fences are built more solidly than in the earlier days, encouraging a bold jump from the horse, which actually helps prevent falls. The layout of the course and the build of the obstacles encourage the horse to have a successful run. This includes a greater use of precision fences, such as corners and skinny jumps, that are very good tests of the rider's ability and the horse's training, but allow the horse to simply run around the jump if the rider misjudges it. Safety measures such as filling in the area between corner-shaped jumps on cross-country or rails of a fence help prevent the entrapment of the legs of the horse decrease the number of serious falls or injuries.

The newest improvement in cross-country safety is the frangible fence, which uses a pin to hold the log of an obstacle up. Should a horse hit the obstacle, the pin breaks and the obstacle falls to the ground. This technique helps to prevent the most dangerous situation on cross-country: when the horse hits a solid fence between the forearm and chest, and somersaults over, sometimes falling on the rider. This type of fall has caused the death of several riders, as well as horses.

Leg protection for horses has also improved. Very little was used in the early days, even on cross-country. However, it is now seen on every horse at almost every level. Boots have increased in technology, and include materials that either help absorb shock or are very hard and strong to prevent a serious injury.

Rules protecting riders have improved as well. Riders are now required to wear a safety vest (body protector) during cross-country, as well as an ASTM/SEI or ISO approved equestrian helmet equipped with a retention harness, which must be fastened while on the horse. Eventing was one of the first sports to require the use of a helmet with harness when jumping. Despite these measures, Eventing remains a very dangerous sport, in which Horse and Rider fatalities occur regularly.

The Weight Rule
From the beginning, event horses had to carry a minimum weight of 165 lb (75 kg) (including rider and saddle) during the endurance test, since military horses were expected to be able to carry such weight. Lead weights were carried on the saddle, and the competitor had to be weighed-in with tack immediately following cross-country. The weight was reduced to 154 lb (70 kg) for the 1996 Olympic Games, after a study demonstrated that both the horse's arc over a fence became shallower and the leading leg took a great deal of extra force on landing when the horse was carrying dead weight than when free from the burden. The rule was eventually abolished January 1, 1998. By removing this rule, the stress on the joints and soft-tissue, as well as the chance of a fall, were decreased.

The winner is the horse and rider with the fewest penalties. Awards are usually presented while mounted, before the placed riders take a lap of honour around the arena.

International events have specific categories and levels of competition and are conducted under the rules of the FEI. CCI (Concours Complet International, or International Complete Contest) is one such category and defines a three-day event that is open to competitors from any foreign nation as well as the host nation.

CCI : International Three-day event (Concours Complet International) CIC: International One-day event (Concours International Combiné) CCIO: International Team Competitions (Concours Complet International Officiel). Includes the Olympics, the World Championships, the Pan Am Games, and other continental championships The levels of inteational events are identified by the number of stars next to the category; there are four levels in total. A CCI* is for horses that are just being introduced to international competition. A CCI** is geared for horses that have some experience of international competition. CCI*** is the advanced level of competition. The very highest level of competition is the CCI****, and with only six such competitions in the world (Badminton, Burghley, Rolex Kentucky, Adelaide, Luhmuhlen Horse Trials, and the Pau Three Day Event) it is the ultimate aim of many riders. The World Championships are also considered CCI****. Rolex offer a financial prize for any rider who can win three of the biggest competitions in succession. These are Badminton, Burghley and Kentucky. So far, Pippa Funnell is the only rider to do this, although Andrew Hoy did come close. One, two and three star competitions are roughly comparable to the Novice, Intermediate and Advanced levels of British domestic competition, respectively, and to the Preliminary, Intermediate, and Advanced levels of American domestic competition, respectively. Domestic competition Eventing rules and the recognized levels in various nations are similar, but not always identical. While rules usually follow the FEI to some degree, history and tradition of various nations has also influenced competition rules within a given country. In addition to recognized events that prepare the best riders for international competition, many nations also offer eventing for beginner, youth, and amateur riders through organizations such as Pony Club, 4-H or other riding clubs, where most riders begin their competitive careers. At the most elementary levels, fence heights begin at around 18 inches to 2 ft (0.61 m). USA In the United States, Eventing is broken down into the following levels, all of which are recognized by the USEA and are run in accordance to their rules: Beginner Novice: X-C fences: 2 ft 7 in (0.79 m), 14-18 efforts XC, ditch 4 ft (1.2 m), drops 3 ft 3 in (0.99 m), 300–350 m/min (meters per minute) on cross country; Stadium fences: 2 ft 7 in (0.79 m), 9-11 efforts. Novice: X-C fences 2 ft 11 in (0.89 m), 16-20 efforts, ditch 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m), drops 3 ft 11 in (1.19 m), 350 to 400 m/min; Stadium fences 2 ft 11 in (0.89 m), 9-11 efforts. Training: X-C fences 3 ft 3 in (0.99 m), 20-24 efforts, ditch 7 ft 11 in (2.41 m), drops 4 ft 7 in (1.40 m), 420 to 470 m/min; Stadium fences 3 ft 3 in (0.99 m), 10-12 efforts. Preliminary: X-C fences 3 ft 7 in (1.09 m), 24-28 efforts, ditch 9 ft 2 in (2.79 m), drops 5 ft 3 in (1.60 m), 520 m/min; Stadium fences 3 ft 7 in (1.09 m), 11-13 efforts. Intermediate: X-C fences 3 ft 9 in (1.14 m), 28-32 efforts, ditch 10 ft 6 in (3.20 m), drops 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m), 550 m/min; Stadium fences 3 ft 11 in (1.19 m), 12-14 efforts. Advanced: X-C fences 3 ft 11 in (1.19 m), 32-40 efforts, ditch 11 ft 10 in (3.61 m), drps 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m), 570 m/min; Stadium fences 4 ft 1 in (1.24 m), 13-15 efforts. UK British Eventing (BE) levels of eventing are as follows: BE90 (formerly Introductory): maximum fence height 0.90 m BE100 (formerly Pre-Novice): max fence height 1.00 m Novice (comparable to the USEA's Preliminary level): max fence height 1.10 m XC, 1.15 m SJ Intermediate Novice: max fence height 1.10 XC; 1.15 m SJ Intermediate: max fence height 1.15 m Advanced Intermediate: max fence height 1.15 m XC; 1.20 SJ Advanced: max fence height 1.20 m Australia In Australia, where the Equestrian Federation of Australia governs eventing competition the levels are as follows: Introductory: XC: fences maximum height 0.80 m ditch 1.40 m drops 1.0 m 400 m/min; Stadium fences: 0.8 m Preliminary: XC: fences maximum height 0.95 m ditch 2.00 m drops 1.2 m 450 m/min; Stadium fences: 0.95 m Pre Novice: XC: fences maximum height 1.05 m ditch 2.40 m drops 1.4, 500 m/min; Stadium fences: 1.05 m Novice: XC: fences maximum height 1.10 m ditch 2.80 m drops 1.6 m 520 m/min; Stadium fences: 1.15 m Intermediate: XC: fences maximum height 1.15 m ditch 3.20 m drops 1.8 m 550 m/min; Stadium fences: 1.20 m Advanced: XC: fences maximum height 1.20 m ditch 3.60 m drops 2.0 m 570 m/min; Stadium fences: 1.25 m Ireland The Irish levels, governed by Eventing Ireland are as follows: Intro: X-C - max height with spread 0.90 m, max spread at highest point 1.00 m, max spread at base 1.50 m, max spread without height 1.20 m, max spread over water 2.0 m, max drop 1.20 m. Stadium - 0.90 m Pre-Novice Training CNCP*: X-C - max height with spread 1.10 m, max spread at highest point 1.40 m, max spread at base 2.10 m, max spread without height 2.80 m, max spread over water 3.05 m, max drop 1.60 m . Stadium - 1.00 m CNC* CNCP**:X-C - max height with spread 1.10 m, max spread at highest point 1.40 m, max spread at base 2.10 m, max spread without height 2.80 m, max spread over water 3.05 m, max drop 1.60 m . Stadium - 1.10 m CNC**: X-C - max height with spread 1.15 m, max spread at highest point 1.60 m, max spread at base 2.40 m, max spread without height 3.20 m, max spread over water 3.65 m, max drop 1.8 m . Stadium - 1.20 m CNC***: X-C - max height with spread 1.20 m, max spread at highest point 1.80 m, max spread at base 2.70 m, max spread without height 3.60 m, max spread over water 4.0 m, max drop 2.0 m . Stadium - 1.25 m Canada The Canadian levels, under the rules of Canadian Eventing, are as follows:

Entry (equatable to USEA Beginner Novice)

Pre-Training (equatable to USEA Novice): XC: fences maximum height 0.91 m ditch 1.50 m drops 1.10 m; Stadium fences: 0.96 m
Training: XC: fences maximum height 1.00 m ditch 1.80 m drops 1.40 m; Stadium fences: 1.05 m
Preliminary: XC: fences maximum height 1.10 m ditch 2.80 m drops 1.60 m; Stadium fences: 1.15 m
Intermediate: XC: fences maximum height 1.15 m ditch 3.20 m drops 1.80 m; Stadium fences: 1.20 m
Advanced: XC: fences maximum height 1.20 m ditch 3.60 m drops 2.00 m; Stadium fences: 1.25 m

The horse In the lower levels, it is possible for any breed of horse, if it has the talent for it, to do well in eventing. Thoroughbreds and part-thoroughbreds currently dominate the sport at the top levels because of their stamina and athletic ability, although many warmbloods and warmblood-thoroughbred crosses also do well. In the UK, Irish sport horses have been popular for many years.

Because larger horses are favoured, animals with some draft horse breeding are also seen, notably the Irish Draught and Clydesdale crossbreds. However, smaller horses can also excel; for example, in the 2007 Rolex Kentucky Three Day CCI competition, the third place competitor was a 14.1 hand gelding that was a cross of Thoroughbred, Arabian and Shetland pony breeding.

An event horse must be very rideable to succeed, as a horse that will not listen to a rider on the cross-country phase may end up taking a fall at a jump. The horse should be calm and submissive for the dressage phase, with good training on the flat. For cross-country, the horse must be brave, athletic, and (especially at the higher levels) fast with a good galloping stride and great stamina. The horse does not have to possess perfect jumping form, but should be safe over fences and have good scope. The best event horses are careful over jumps, as those who are not tend to have stadium rails knocked down on the last day. The horse also needs to have sound conformation and good feet.

Riding attire

Riding attire is different for the three phases. Dressage and show jumping require very conservative attire, following the traditional turnout for each of those disciplines. Cross-country is much less formal, with many riders wearing clothing of personalised colours and the emphasis very much on safety equipment.

Dressage
For the intermediate and advanced levels, dressage attire is similar to that of Grand Prix Dressage. The rider must wear a dark coat (usually black or navy blue), with a shirt, stock tie, and pin. If the rider is riding at FEI level, only then can they wear a shadbelly tailcoat and a top hat. Riding breeches are usually white, although any light colour is permitted.

Gloves are usually white, although other colours are permitted. Spurs of certain lengths and types are required. Riding boots such as field or dress tall boots are usually black, in normal or patent leather.

The lower levels have less restrictive rules on dress. Though navy and black coats are preferred, riders may wear any conservatively coloured dark or tweed hunting coat (shadbelly/tail coats are not permitted) with a white shirt and choker or, preferably, stock tie with pin. If a rider wishes to stay within normal requirements for higher-level competition, breeches should be white, but beige or another conservative light colour is permissible. A black or navy hunt cap or derby hat may be worn, although many riders use an equestrian helmet, which are considered safer. Boots may be field or dress style, black or brown in colour. Gloves and spurs give a polished and professional appearance, but are not required at this level.

Cross-country
The rider is required to wear a protective vest, as well as a ASTM/SEI/BS approved equestrian helmet, properly fastened at all times when jumping (and may be eliminated if this is not done). A medical armband, containing the rider's medicinal history, is required. This is for safety purposes, allowing access to the information should the rider fall, be knocked unconscious, and require medical treatment.

Breeches may be any colour, with some riders coordinating it with their shirt or vest colour. All shirts must have longsleeves, and light-weight rugby shirts are the most commonly worn type, usually without a stock or tie. Black and/or brown boots may be worn. Riding coats are not worn. This is the event where riders may choose anything from traditional hunter green or navy blue to tye dye and even zebra stripes or fluorescent colours.

Lastly, most riders also wear a stop-watch, to track their time as they go cross-country so that they may adjust their speed as needed to come in as close as possible to the optimum time, if not faster. However, in the UK this is only permitted at Novice level or above.

Show jumping
Show jumping attire is similar to that of dressage. However, a protective equestrian helmet with harness is required, and riders always wear a short hunt coat, except when weather is unreasonably warm, when, at the discretion of the technical delegate, jackets may be considered optional. If helmet covers are used, they are required to be black or dark blue though some now include national colours where they are entitled to be worn.

As in cross-country, riders wear a medical armband. Turn-out of the horse and tack
Turn-out and grooming
Event horses are turned out similarly to dressage horses, with the legs and face (muzzle, jaw, sides of ears, bridle path) neatly clipped. The tail is usually banged (cut straight across), usually to a length between the fetlock joint and lower hock. Additionally, most event riders clip the sides of their mount's tails, to give them a finer appearance. The braiding of tails is fairly uncommon, probably because the tail can not be braided if the hairs along the sides of the dock are clipped.

The mane is pulled to about 4 inches in length and is usually braided for dressage as well as the show jumping phase. However, most riders prefer to leave it loose for cross-country in case they need to grab it for security. Some riders also place quarter marks (decorative stenciling) on the hindquarters, although it is not particularly common as of 2007

Tack
Most event riders have a jumping saddle as well as a dressage saddle, since each places them in a position better-suited for its purpose. At the lower levels, however, a rider can ride all three phases without difficulty in a well-fitted jumping saddle. At the upper levels, riders usually have a saddle specifically designed for cross-country, giving them more freedom for such fences as banks and drops.

Dressage tack is usually black in color, with a white square pad, giving a formal look. Except for the upper levels, where a double bridle is permitted, horses may only be ridden in snaffle bits. There are strict guidelines as to what type of snaffle may be used, and the more severe types (such as any twisted bit) are prohibited. If a double bridle is used, a plain cavesson or crank noseband must be worn. With a snaffle bridle, the rider is also free to use the drop, flash, or figure-eight noseband, with the flash and plain cavesson being the most common. Breastplates are also fairly common in dressage at an event, despite the fact that they are not seen at regular dressage shows. Other forms of equipment, such as martingales, protective boots, gadgets/training devices, bit guards, polo wraps, or tail wraps are not allowed during the test.

In show jumping, the rider uses a jumping saddle, usually with a square or fitted white pad. Rules on tack are less-stringent, and most forms of bridling and bitting are allowed, including the use of gag bits, hackamores, and any type of noseband. Breastplates and protective boots are usually worn. Running martingales are also allowed, but must be used with rein stops. Standing and Irish martingales are not allowed.

For the cross-country phase, the rider usually uses similar tack as for the show jumping. However, protective boots are taped for extra security, to help prevent them from slipping as the horse jumps into water. Most horses that wear shoes are also fitted with horse shoe studs, to prevent slipping. At the upper levels, riders may also apply a grease or lard to the front of the horse's legs, to help the horse slide over fences if they hang a leg. Riders also tend to color-coordinate their cross-country tack to their colors. For example, using the same color saddle pad and tape for their boots, to match their shirt and protective vest.



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